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User-Generated Content and Future Challenges: New Kinds of Communication

By Scott McDonald

It’s hard to believe that user-generated content (UGC) has only been a mainstream phenomenon since 2005. Even by Internet standards, its proliferation and growing cultural impact have been astonishing.

Through personal blogs, social networks, online communities and discussion boards, product reviews, wikis, news sites, travel sites, and video and photo sharing sites, average citizens are exerting an increasingly profound influence over our culture and economy. Entire industries are being transformed. Retail and travel, for example, will never be the same.

UGC is only getting bigger. According to eMarketer, the number of people creating user-generated content online will rise from 88.8 million in 2009 to 114.5 million in 2013.

This rapid success has produced some growing pains for UGC, and with them some critical challenges for the UX community. Chief among them:

If UGC is to remain relevant, UX practitioners must do more than help people to participate in the UGC revolution. We must make it more manageable and meaningful for users as well.

Quantity: What Do You Do with 1,000 Friends?
The flow of information through social media and other UGC channels has grown so dramatically that many users have reached overload. According to the digital research firm Econsultancy:

More and more people are tuning out in response. Last year, both The New York Times (“Facebook Exodus”) and Newsweek (“You Can’t Friend Me, I Quit!”) covered the growing number of defections by beleaguered Facebook users.

The problem of UGC overload will increasingly drive users to the best and most reliable sources of content, especially if they allow them to filter it quickly and effectively.

Facebook recently implemented filtering to help members manage all the content from trusted sources in their network. Yahoo Answers indicates the reliability of participants, using credibility indicators such as reputation points or scores as a way for users to vet contributions and identify the community’s most respected members. But there is still a long way to go.

Quality: Who is Cityguy224, and Why Should We Care What He Thinks?
What do we know about the people whose opinions we increasingly rely upon through product and service reviews, blog posts, or comments on Facebook pages?

According to studies by Jakob Nielsen of the Nielsen Norman Group:

These ratios will vary depending on the site and demographic, but the larger idea still stands: contributors of user-generated content are a small percentage of the overall Internet population. They are also overwhelmingly young. A study by Rubicon Consulting found that young people aged twenty-two and under account for about half of the content and comments posted online.

It is ironic that the concept of consumer-generated media, so often portrayed as a democratizing force that empowers consumers to participate in the conversation versus just being spoken to, is actually dominated by a small fraction of relatively young Internet users. Do those movie reviewers on Netflix share your unique tastes and sensibilities in film? Does that affluent middle-aged suburbanite realize that the restaurant reviews she’s reading on Citysearch and Yelp were written mainly by twenty-somethings with different tastes and expectations?

As with the problem of quantity, there has been some backlash, deftly covered in 2008 Newsweek article “Revenge of the Experts,” which discussed a mounting demand by both users and website owners for a more reliable, bankable web.

Cutting through the Noise: Emerging Best Practices
While consistent methods for taming the UGC beast have yet to emerge, the issue is gaining traction, and some promising solutions are emerging across the Web.

Most major e-commerce, media, and social networking sites already allow readers to flag objectionable comments for removal and make some effort to block comments from people who have repeatedly violated the site’s standards. Anonymous online comments, once seen as essential to the free exchange of ideas online—even the success of the Internet itself—are increasingly coming under question by website owners.

The consumer review site Angie’s List was one of the first sites to differentiate itself on credibility by requiring all registered members to personally identify themselves. Now the major news sites are rethinking anonymous online comments en masse.

The debate over anonymity is entwined with the question of giving more weight to comments from some readers than from others, based in part on how highly other readers regard them.

An increasing number of sites are using proprietary algorithms to improve their user experience. Yelp uses an algorithm that gives more prominent placement to reviews by “established” community members.

It’s not only websites that are taking UGC to the next level; device manufacturers are getting in on the act, too. Microsoft’s now-defunct Kin phone, aimed at the social networking generation, pooled several social media streams, including Facebook, Twitter, MySpace, and Windows Live, and let consumers program their phones so their closest friends’ updates rose to the top, a feature it called “The Loop.”

For an example of a site that’s not just moving toward the future of UGC but is leading the charge, check out www.RottenTomatoes.com, a community site for movie lovers. Rotten Tomatoes employs the total package—filtering, sorting, reputation scores, site activity, community policing, member profile information, and its own proprietary algorithms—to construct a highly personalized, trustworthy destination where movie lovers of all stripes can participate according to their level of comfort, enthusiasm, and sophistication. On Rotten Tomatoes users can:

Our Challenge
The triumph of UGC has created tremendous opportunities for consumers and brands, and critical new challenges for UX practitioners. These are primarily how to deal with the massive amount of content that is being produced. What is needed now are new methods to filter all of that information for relevance, as well as reputation, accuracy, and similarity of viewpoint. Until all that happens, our growing body of UGC faces the prospect of becoming a collection of noise that users no longer bother to rely upon in the future.UX

Scott McDonald is co-founder and managing director of Modus Associates, a digital innovation consultancy based in New York City. A frequent industry speaker and writer, Scott has advised global brands including Morgan Stanley & Co., Sony, Citibank, and SIRIUS Satellite Radio.

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User Experience Magazine is by and about usability professionals, featuring significant and unique articles dealing with the broad field of usability and the user experience.

This article was originally printed in User Experience Magazine, Volume 9, Issue 4, 2010.

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